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Viji and I hope you have found many of the ideas in this course useful. We have found in our own teaching when we incorporate more structure through practice that we can make our course more inclusive and that structure comes into our classroom interactions with our students, our curriculum, as well as our classroom activities. Once you adopt a mindset of structure, you’ll see your teaching with a whole new perspective. In fact Viji and I often see this outside of our own teaching in daily activities. We’ll often text each other about places that we see could use a lot more structure.

For example, noisy airports that don’t have visual messaging and lines on the floor for lining up, as well as swim meets we’ve been to as parents where we think they could use color coding and numbers for the kids ages 10 and under. To adopt this mindset in your teaching, we think you should ask this one question to yourself over and over. And that question is “Can I bring more structure to what I’m doing?” And it’s often very helpful to think about certain students in your course to help you think about that structure.

For example, if you’re doing a classroom activity, you might ask “How would this work for a multilingual student?” “Would a quiet student be successful with this activity?” As we continue to ask that question, we’ll find places where we can incorporate more structure into our class and we’ll see that that inclusive mindset comes easier and easier. Once we adopted this mindset in our own teaching the results were seen in responses to student surveys as well as the outcomes in our own courses. We felt empowered by embracing this mindset and we hope you will too.

  • Differentiated between high and low structure in both course design and classroom interactions by looking at examples and reflecting about your own course.
  • Explained how structure helps students learn by examining selected research studies.
  • Brainstormed ways to add structure to your course in both course design and classroom interactions.
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Thanks for taking part in this course. We hope you found it enjoyable and useful and we really encourage you to join in the discussion. And if you want to learn more check out our book ‘Inclusive Teaching: Strategies For Promoting Equity In The College Classroom’ More details are below in the lesson.

Thank you for taking this ‘The Role of Structure in Inclusive Teaching’ course which has been developed with Kelly Hogan and Viji Sathy. We hope you have enjoyed it. Remember to mark this lesson as ‘Mark Complete’ to earn your Course Completion Badge.

Further Reading

Hogan, K. and Sathy, V. (2022). Inclusive Teaching: Strategies for Promoting Equity in the College Classroom. West Virginia University.

Find out more about Kelly and Viji's book in their interview with James M Lang.


Eddy, S., and Hogan, K. (2014). Getting under the Hood: How and for whom does increasing course structure work? CBE—Life Sciences Education, 13(3), 453–68. 

Hogan, K. A., and Sathy, V. (2022). Inclusive Teaching: Strategies for Promoting Equity in the College Classroom. WVU Press. 

Freeman, S., Haak. D, and Wenderoth, M. P. (2011). Increased course structure improves performance in introductory biology. CBE—Life Sciences Education 10(2), 175–86. 

Tanner, Kimberly D. (2017). Structure matters: Twenty-one teaching strategies to promote student engagement and cultivate classroom equity. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 12(3), 322–31. 

Theobald, E. J., Hill. M., Tran, E., Agrawal. S., Arroyo. E. N., Behling. S., Chambwe. N., et al. (2020). Active learning narrows achievement gaps for underrepresented students in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and math. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(12), 6476–83. 

Sathy, V., and Moore, Q. (2020). Who benefits from the flipped classroom? Quasi-experimental findings on student learning, engagement, course perceptions and interest in statistics. In J. Rodgers Taylor-Francis, ed, Teaching Statistics and Qualitative Methods in the 21st Century. 

Viji and Kelly's website:


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